Haskell Bits 3 - Connecting to Databases

Today I want to talk about getting Haskell programs to talk to databases.

We’ll set out to build something pretty simple: A single table, filled with records of board games. I want to keep the focus of the post on connecting to various database types, so our board game record will be extremely simple. Here’s an example of the table we’ll be working with:

id name designer year
1 Lords of Waterdeep Peter Lee 2012
3 Agricola Uwe Rosenberg 2007
4 Race for the Galaxy Thomas Lehmann 2007

Important note: I originally had “Chess” in here as a board game with no known year, but realized after writing the post and all of the associated code that I don’t know who designed it, either! The designer should technically be nullable as well, but it is not in the schema I’ve defined. Keep that in mind as you read through the post!

I’m going to walk through inserting a single element into a table of the aforementioned schema, but it will support all of the records above. Try inserting them as an exercise!

We’re going to talk about connecting to three different databases:

  • sqlite
  • postgresql
  • mysql

…with two different “flavors” of libary. First, the lower-level “-simple” strain of database libraries, and later, the higher-level persistent library.

Connecting to sqlite with sqlite-simple

We need a database:

$ sqlite3 board_games.db "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS board_games (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
name TEXT NOT NULL, designer TEXT NOT NULL, year INTEGER);"
{-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-}
{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

import Control.Monad.State
import Control.Monad.Reader
import Data.Text
import Database.SQLite.Simple
import Data.Maybe (fromJust)

data BoardGame = BoardGame
    { name :: Text
    , designer :: Text
    , year :: Maybe Int
    } deriving (Show, Eq)

instance FromRow BoardGame where
    fromRow = BoardGame <$> field <*> field <*> field

instance ToRow BoardGame where
    toRow BoardGame{..} = toRow (name, designer, year)

createGame :: BoardGame -> ReaderT Connection IO (Int, BoardGame)
createGame game = ask >>= \conn -> do
    liftIO $ execute
        "INSERT INTO board_games (name, designer, year) VALUES (?,?,?)"
    boardGameId <- fromIntegral <$> liftIO (lastInsertRowId conn)
    game' <- fromJust <$> readGame boardGameId
    pure (boardGameId, game')

readGame :: Int -> ReaderT Connection IO (Maybe BoardGame)
readGame boardGameId = ask >>= \conn -> do
    games <- liftIO $ query 
        "SELECT name, designer, year FROM board_games WHERE id = ?"
        (Only boardGameId)
    pure $ case games of
         [g] -> Just g
         _ -> Nothing

main :: IO ()
main = do
    conn <- open "board_games.db"
    flip runReaderT conn $ do
        result <- createGame $ BoardGame
            "Cosmic Encounter"
            "Bill Eberle"
            (Just 2008)
        liftIO $ print result

(packages needed: sqlite-simple, mtl, text)

This is the core logic we’ll be implementing with each library. We’ll just be modifying this piecemeal for the rest of the implementations. It’s the longest code sample in the post, so don’t run off!

Let’s walk through this a little, just once. Here’s what we’re doing:

  • Creating a connection (called conn)
  • Storing it in a read-only environment with ReaderT computations
  • Creating a new record for Cosmic Encounter
  • Then printing it, along with its id in the database.

In order to do this, we have to write a little bit of boilerplate. First is the model definition for BoardGame, and instances of ToRow and FromRow, which allow us to serialize and deserialize from the sqlite representation of a BoardGame. We also have to write the actual SQL commands; not a whole lot is abstracted away from us.

(I lied a little - the model definition is not strictly necessary but it’s typically good to pull data into your program’s domain, so I suggest doing this step.)

Connecting to postgresql with postgresql-simple

We’ll need a database, again (note the syntax is slightly different):

  designer TEXT NOT NULL,
  year INTEGER

Otherwise, we don’t have a ton to change. We only have to touch a few things:

  • The way that we procure a Connection is slightly different, because we’re no longer using a flat file
  • lastInsertRowId is not a primitive. Postgres supports RETURNING syntax so we can get the id when we insert.
  • The imports have to change.

That’s actually…it. Here are the imports we need:

import Database.PostgreSQL.Simple
import Database.PostgreSQL.Simple.FromRow
import Database.PostgreSQL.Simple.ToRow

Here is the new createGame:

createGame :: BoardGame -> ReaderT Connection IO (Int, BoardGame)
createGame game = ask >>= \conn -> do
    [Only boardGameId] <- liftIO $ query
        "INSERT INTO board_games (name, designer, year) VALUES (?,?,?) RETURNING id"
    game' <- fromJust <$> readGame boardGameId
    pure (boardGameId, game')

And here is the new connection procuring mechanism (this uses a postgres connection string, so suit it to your needs):

-- Inside `main`:
conn <- connectPostgreSQL "host=localhost port=5432 connect_timeout=10"

(packages needed: postgresql-simple, mtl, text)

Check out the full source here.

Connecting to mysql with mysql-simple

The last database we’ll get this running on is mysql. mysql-simple was the original “-simple” library for database management. However, it’s also the most different.

First, creating the table:

CREATE TABLE `board_games` (
  `id` int(11) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` varchar(64) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `designer` varchar(64) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `year` int(4) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)

We’ll need the language extension BangPatterns (not necessary, but recommended):

{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-}

and some updated imports:

import Database.MySQL.Simple
import Database.MySQL.Simple.QueryParams
import Database.MySQL.Simple.QueryResults
import Database.MySQL.Simple.Param
import Database.MySQL.Simple.Result

Our BoardGame type can stay the same, but ToRow and FromRow get replaced with the typeclasses QueryParams and QueryResults respectively. Their interfaces are a little different too:

instance QueryParams BoardGame where
    renderParams BoardGame{..} = [render name, render designer, render year]

instance QueryResults BoardGame where
    convertResults [fa,fb,fc] [va,vb,vc] = BoardGame a b c 
        where !a = convert fa va
              !b = convert fb vb
              !c = convert fc vc
    convertResults fs vs  = convertError fs vs 3

We need to go back to selecting the last insert id, but there’s no primitive for that, so we inline it and make some small modifications to createGame:

createGame :: BoardGame -> ReaderT Connection IO (Int, BoardGame)
createGame game = ask >>= \conn -> do
    liftIO $ execute
        "INSERT INTO board_games (name, designer, year) VALUES (?,?,?)"
    [Only boardGameId] <- liftIO $ query_ conn "SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID()"
    game' <- fromJust <$> readGame boardGameId 
    pure (boardGameId, game')

Connection info is provided using ConnectInfo instead of a postgres connection string:

connectInfo :: ConnectInfo
connectInfo = defaultConnectInfo
    { connectDatabase = "board_games"

The last step is to swap the connection line in main to:

-- Inside main
conn <- connect connectInfo 

(packages needed: postgresql-simple, mtl, text)

Check out the full source here

These libraries are not all that different - they’re all inspired by one-another. You may find documentation or tutorials that use one of these libraries and need to use another; I hope this helps translate between the languages of the three.

Next, I’d like to talk about persistent. persistent is a higher-level, more fully featured set of database tooling. It’s a lot more “magical” than the “-simple” libraries, but removes the necessity of some of the boilerplate and inlining of raw SQL that comes with the “-simple” variants. It’s also backend-agnostic which makes for a uniform interface.

Connecting to sqlite with persistent

We’ll need a data type definition in persistent’s template haskell DSL, which we’ll put in a module called Types:

{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-}
{-# LANGUAGE QuasiQuotes #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}

module Types where

import Database.Persist.TH

share [mkPersist sqlSettings, mkMigrate "migrateAll"] [persistLowerCase|
BoardGame sql=board_games
    name String
    designer String
    year Int Maybe

    UniqueName name

    deriving Show

The translated source:

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

import Types

import Database.Persist.Sqlite
import Control.Monad.Logger
import Control.Monad.IO.Class

printIO :: (MonadIO m, Show a) => a -> m ()
printIO = liftIO . print

createGame :: MonadIO m => BoardGame -> SqlPersistT m (Entity BoardGame) 
createGame = insertEntity

readGame :: MonadIO m => Int -> SqlPersistT m (Maybe BoardGame) 
readGame = get . toSqlKey . fromIntegral

main :: IO ()
main = 
        . withSqlitePool "board_games.db" 3
        . runSqlPool
        $ do
            result <- createGame $ BoardGame
                "Cosmic Encounter"
                "Bill Eberle"
                (Just 2008)
            liftIO $ print result

            -- This is the easiest way to re-read a record:
            get (entityKey result) >>= printIO 

            -- Getting by id
            readGame 1 >>= printIO 
            -- Get by name too:
            getBy (UniqueName "Cosmic Encounter") >>= printIO 

(packages needed: persistent, persistent-template, persistent-sqlite, mtl, monad-logger)

A couple of things:

  • SqlPersistT can be thought of as a “SQL Statement Context” - you can write arbitrary queries in these blocks. Each of these is run in its own transaction by default, so be careful! Any exceptions will roll back any changes. (thanks to /u/ephrion for bringing up this point!)
  • BoardGame and UniqueName are types generated by the template haskell in the Types module.
  • This uses a connection pool with 3 open connections. You can also create a single connection with withSqliteConn instead of withSqlitePool.
  • Entity is a type consisting of a Key and a model (in our case, BoardGame) - this is analogous to (Int, BoardGame) with the -simple libraries.
  • runStdoutLoggingT prints debug SQL statements to stdout. It can be replaced with runNoLoggingT or runStderrLoggingT to modify this behavior.

This is just the tip of the iceberg. See the Yesod book’s chapter on persistent, the persistent documentation and specifically the Database.Persist.Class module for more information.

Also see the persistent-sqlite documentation.

Connecting to postgres with persistent

Change the Database.Persist.Sqlite import to Database.Persist.Postgres.

The only other thing to change in order to connect to postgres instead is the second line of main, to:

. withPostgresqlPool "host=localhost port=5432 connect_timeout=10" 3

(packages needed: persistent, persistent-template, persistent-postgresql, mtl, monad-logger)

Everything else works the same!

View the full source here

And the persistent-postgresql documentation

Connecting to mysql with persistent

Connecting to mysql is almost as simple. Change the import to Database.Persist.MySQL, add the ConnectInfo definition:

connectInfo :: ConnectInfo
connectInfo = defaultConnectInfo
    { connectDatabase = "board_games"

and change the same line in main to:

. withMySQLPool connectInfo 3

(packages needed: persistent, persistent-template, persistent-mysql, mtl, monad-logger)

Again, everything else works the same.

View the full source here

And the persistent-mysql documentation

I’ve never attempted to run a database-backed haskell application on Windows, so I must apologize for not showing off how to connect to SQL Server. AFAIK, the only current package that supports this is HDBC, which I’ve not used.

What is your preferred way of interacting with databases in Haskell? Which database do you think is the most pleasant to work with? What parts of this post would you like to see expanded on in the future? Let me know in the comments!