### Abstract Nonsense: Ramblings by Benjamin Kovach

#### Haskell Bits #2: Application Beginnings

Are you comfortable creating data types, manipulating lists, composing functions, etc, but not sure how to make a “useful program” with haskell? This is a very common stumbling block when learning. It might be the complaint I’ve heard the most.

In this Haskell Bit, I want to walk through a pattern I have commonly seen in haskell applications. The pattern isn’t specific to haskell - it’s commonplace in tons of programming environments. It’s just a little less obvious how to get here with Haskell.

Here’s the pattern:

• Set up some program state that will be manipulated over the course of the program
• Run the program!

The mtl package will need to be installed to run these examples.

In haskell, we have to be explicit about our the shape of our state and environment. A common way to represent a program with access to these basic needs, and not much else, is with the following data type:

import Control.Monad.Reader

type Program state config a = StateT state (ReaderT config IO) a

This data type expresses the following:

• We can read and manipulate the internal state of our program (of type state)
• We can read (and only read) values of type config in our program
• We can access IO

For those who aren’t familiar, this is called a “monad transformer stack”. It’s just an expression of the effects our program can have.

With this, we’re going to build something extremely contrived. It should demonstrate the utility of this pattern, however. Here’s what we’ll do:

• Read two environment variables, COUNT_BY, and COUNT_UP_TO
• It will start at 0, and count by COUNT_BY steps, up to COUNT_UP_TO, printing out each value.

To do this, we need IO (to print), a read-only environment (to store the environment variables in), and some state (the current count). Sounds like it fits the pattern. Let’s see what it looks like!

import Control.Monad.State
import Data.Monoid
import System.Environment

type Program state config a = StateT state (ReaderT config IO) a

-- Run a Program with a given state and config, returning
-- a final value and the final state of the Program
runProgram :: Program s c a -> s -> c -> IO (a, s)
runProgram p s c = runReaderT (runStateT p s) c

data CounterState = CounterState { currentCount :: Integer }

data CounterConfig = CounterConfig
{ countBy :: Integer
, countUpTo :: Integer
}

-- A more specific type for our Counter program
type Counter a = Program CounterState CounterConfig a

-- The initial state we're starting with
initialState :: CounterState
initialState = CounterState 0

-- Some code to read from our environment variables.
-- Note: This is unsafe, and if either environment variable is
-- a) not set, or
-- b) not formatted like an integer,
-- the program will currently error out.
getConfig :: IO CounterConfig
getConfig = do
countBy' <- read <$> getEnv "COUNT_BY" countUpTo' <- read <$> getEnv "COUNT_UP_TO"
pure $CounterConfig countBy' countUpTo' -- Our actual program ("business logic") counter :: Counter () counter = do count <- gets currentCount countUpTo' <- lift$ asks countUpTo

unless (count > countUpTo') $do liftIO . putStrLn$ "Current count: " <> show count
countBy' <- lift $asks countBy let newCount = count + countBy' modify (\st -> st{ currentCount = newCount }) counter main :: IO () main = do config <- getConfig void$ runProgram counter initialState config

To run this, assuming it’s compiled to a program called counter:

$COUNT_BY=13 COUNT_UP_TO=100 counter Current count: 0 Current count: 13 Current count: 26 Current count: 39 Current count: 52 Current count: 65 Current count: 78 Current count: 91 Not so bad! This is totally enough to get started with some more complex programs. Anything below this point is just polish. I will go into all of these polishing modifications in more detail in later posts. Anyway, the following things are a little ugly right now, in my opinion: • Multiple calls to lift in counter • The modify call in counter is not a cute line of code • We’re confined to IO as a base monad • As mentioned in comments, the configuration code will error out. Better to handle specific cases. The first thing I want to do is abolish the lift calls in counter. We’ll need to add the ConstraintKinds and FlexibleContexts extensions to get this to compile, but here’s an updated program: -- Add this to the top of the file: {-# LANGUAGE ConstraintKinds#-} {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts#-} -- -- An interface that describes the effects our program can have. type MonadCounter m = ( MonadState CounterState m , MonadReader CounterConfig m , MonadIO m ) counter :: MonadCounter m => m () counter = do count <- gets currentCount countUpTo' <- asks countUpTo unless (count > countUpTo')$ do
liftIO . putStrLn $"Current count: " <> show count countBy' <- asks countBy let newCount = count + countBy' modify (\st -> st{ currentCount = newCount }) counter Everything else can stay the same. We’ve begun programming against the MonadCounter interface, which Counter just happens to satisfy, so we can still use our runProgram function. The interface contains the State/Reader functions, but removes the need for lift, which is nice. Note: If we remove the MonadIO constraint in MonadCounter, we’re no longer bound to using IO as our program’s base monad. It’s necessary for our current program (since liftIO is called), but for others it may not be. Next, let’s handle the ugly call to modify. We can clean this up with lenses. I’ll cover these in greater detail in a later post. For now, we’ll need a separate module, Types, containing the following (we also need the lens library): {-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-} module Types where import Control.Lens data CounterState = CounterState { _currentCount :: Integer } data CounterConfig = CounterConfig { _countBy :: Integer , _countUpTo :: Integer }$(makeLenses ''CounterState)
$(makeLenses ''CounterConfig) This will give us lenses for currentCount, countBy, and countUpTo. We can then write counter as: counter :: MonadCounter m => m () counter = do count <- use currentCount countUpTo' <- view countUpTo unless (count > countUpTo')$ do
liftIO . putStrLn \$ "Current count: " <> show count
countBy' <- view countBy
currentCount += countBy'
counter

I think that’s quite nice and readable.

I’m going to postpone talking about reading environment variables because I want to dedicate a whole Haskell Bit to reading configuration safely, and this one is getting somewhat long.

Is there a topic you would like to see covered in the future? Do you start your projects in a wildly different way? Let me know in the comments!

Ben